Porous polymers

Macroporous microcellular polymers are a class of polymeric materials with specific morphological features and a broad application spectrum. Open cellular morphology of macroporous polymers can be achieved among others, by high internal phase emulsion templating. High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) are emulsions in which the volume fraction of the internal phase exceeds 74%. If the continuous phase is polymerizable, porous polymeric monoliths with cellular diameters in the μm-range are accessible. Such polymer-foams are used as e.g. cell culturing scaffold, reagent and catalyst support or stationary phase in chromatography. 

Our contribution to the field focuses on using Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerisation (ROMP) as the curing method and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), a cheap by-product in steam cracking, as the monomer. The resulting monolithic polyDCPD foams are characterized by outstanding mechanical properties when compared to the state of the art (Kovačič, S. et al. Eur. Pat. Appl., 2012, EP 2639247 (A1)). Building on this unique characteristic, several uses of the material has been described, e.g. as seperator in Li-ion batteries (Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2013, 34, 581) or as solid support for metal organic frameworks (Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2015, 36, 1605). Furthermore, research on utilizing the high degree of unsaturation in the material is conducted (e.g. Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 7325 or ibid. 2015, 51, 7225). Finally, we disclosed a method for converting the polyDCPD-foams into carbon-foams (Slugovc, C. et al. Eur. Pat. Appl., 2012, EP 2669260 (A1)). The latter finding was the foundation for a project (BiLiLuBat) aiming at novel cathode materials in Li-air batteries.

For further reading see:

"Macroporous carbon coatings through carbonization of emulsion-templated poly(dicyclopentadiene) on metal substrates."
Kovačič, S.; Gruber, K.; Fuchsbichler, B.; Schmuck, M.; Slugovc, C. Monatsh. Chem. 2023, 154, 515-522. DOI: 10.1007/s00706-023-03048-5

"Carbon Foams via Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization of Emulsion Templates: A Facile Method to make Porous Carbon Current Collectors for Battery Applications."
Kovačič, S.; Schafzahl, B.; Matsko, N. B.; Gruber, K.; Koller, S.; Schmuck, M.; Freunberger, S. A.; Slugovc, C. ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2022, 5, 14381–14390.
DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.2c02787

"A natural rubber waste derived surfactant for high internal phase emulsion templating of poly(dicyclopentadiene)."
Schallert, V.; Slugovc. C. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2021, 222, 2100110. DOI:10.1002/macp.202100110

"Fast oxygen scavenging of macroporous poly(norbornadiene) prepared by Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization."
Vakalopoulou, E.; Borisov, S. M.; Slugovc, C. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2020, 41, 1900581. DOI: 10.1002/marc.201900581

"The effects of enhancing the crosslinking degree in high internal phase emulsion templated poly(dicyclopentadiene)."
Vakalopoulou, E.; Slugovc, C. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2019, 220, 1900423.
DOI: 10.1002/macp.201900423

"Strength versus toughness of emulsion templated poly(dicyclopentadiene)
Kovačič, S.; Žagar, E.; Slugovc, C. Polymer 2019, 169, 58-65.
DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2019.02.045

"Supercritical CO2 Mediated Functionalization of Highly Porous Emulsion-Derived Foams: scCO2 Absorption and Epoxidation."
Trupej, N.; Novak, Z.; Knez, Ž.; Slugovc, C.; Kovačič, S. J. CO2 Util. 2017, 21, 336-341.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcou.2017.07.024

mrc.jpg "Synthesis and Catalytic Performance of Hierarchically Porous MIL-100(Fe)@polyHIPE Hybrid Membranes." Kovačič, S.; Mazaj, M.; Jeselnik, M.; Pahovnik, D.; Žagar, E.; Slugovc, C.; Zabukovec Logar, N. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2015, 36, 1605-1611. DOI: 10.1002/marc.201500241

cc-coe-hipe.jpg"Covalent incorporation of the surfactant into high internal phase emulsion templated polymeric foams."
Kovačič, S.; Preishuber-Pflügl, F.; Pahovnik, D.; Žagar, E.; Slugovc, C. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 7225-7228. DOI: 10.1039/C4CC09199J

express.jpg"Tailoring the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Dicyclopentadiene PolyHIPEs with the Use of a Comonomer."
Mert, E. H.; Slugovc, C.; Krajnc, P. Express Polym. Lett. 2015, 9, 344-353. DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2015.32

ami.jpg"Macroporous ZnO Foams by High Internal Phase Emulsion Technique: Synthesis and Catalytic Activity."
Kovačič, S.; Anžlovar, A.; Erjavec, B.; Kapun, G.; Matsko, N. B.; Zigon, M.; Zagar, E.; Pintar, A.; Slugovc, C. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 19075-19081. DOI: 10.1021/am5050482

MME.jpg "Macroporous Polyolefin Membranes from Dicyclopentadiene High Internal Phase Emulsions: Preparation and Morphology Tuning."
Kovačič, S.; Preishuber-Pflügl, F.; Slugovc, C. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2014, 299, 843-850. DOI: 10.1002/mame.201300400

actachimslov_small.jpg"Nanocomposite Foams from Iron Oxide Stabilized Dicyclopentadiene High Internal Phase Emulsions: Preparation and Bromination."
Kovačič, S.; Matsko, N. B.; Ferk, G.;  Slugovc, C. Acta Chim. Slov. 2014, 61, 208-214. Link

chemcomm.jpg "Inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) functionalisation of macroporous poly(dicyclopentadiene) foams."
Knall, A.-C.; Kovačič, S.; Hollauf, M.; Reishofer, D. P.; Saf, R.; Slugovc, C. Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 7325-7327. DOI: 10.1039/C3CC42925C

jmaterchem-seba.jpg "Macroporous poly(dicyclopentadiene) γFe2O3/Fe3O4 nanocomposite foams by high internal phase emulsion templating." Kovačič, S.; Matsko, N. B.; Ferk, G.; Slugovc, C. J. Mater. Chem. A. 2013, 1, 7971-7978. DOI: 10.1039/C3TA11402C

mrc.jpg"The use of an emulsion templated microcellular poly(dicyclopentadiene-co-norbornene) membrane as separator in lithium-ion batteries."
Kovačič, S.; Kren, H.; Krajnc, P.; Koller, S.; Slugovc, C. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2013, 34, 581-587. DOI: 10.1002/marc.201200754

jmaterchemA.jpg"On the Mechanical Properties of HIPE Templated Macroporous poly(Dicyclopentadiene) Prepared with Low Surfactant Amounts."
Kovačič, S.; Matsko, N. B.; Jeřabek, K.; Krajnc, P.; Slugovc, C. J. Mater. Chem. A 2013, 1, 487-490. DOI: 10.1039/C2TA00546H

x"Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerisation of emulsion templated dicyclopentadiene giving open porous materials with excellent mechanical properties."
Kovačič, S.; Jeřabek, K.; Krajnc, P.; Slugovc, C. Polym. Chem. 2012, 3, 325-328. DOI:10.1039/C2PY00518B

"Inherently Reactive polyHIPE Material from Dicyclopentadiene."
Kovacic, S.; Krajnc, P.; Slugovc, C. Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 7504-7506. DOI: 10.1039/C0CC02610G

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