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Michael Lammer and Viktor Hacker
Chemical circulation processes require high-tech materials as oxygen carriers in the fixed-bed reactor. These consist of the reactive iron-based species and inert additives to maintain the functionality of the process. This chapter contains data on various materials and on the chemical reactions and reaction mechanisms. Side reactions and their respective influence on the product gas quality, i.e. the purity, are discussed in detail. Emphasis is placed on the sustainability aspects of this technology by providing information on the pre-pressurization of hydrogen and the sequestration of carbon dioxide.
Published in Current Trends and Future Developments on (Bio-) Membranes: New Perspectives on Hydrogen Production, Separation, and Utilization, A. Iulianelli & A. Basile (eds), 1st edn, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 225-240.
The fact that liquid manure stinks and pollutes the groundwater is no big news. But that it can be converted into valuable fertiliser is perhaps. In a pilot project, nitrogen is removed from the liquid manure and what remains are the pure raw materials.
Robert Zacharias, Sebastian Bock and Viktor Hacker
The successful application of fixed bed chemical looping for hydrogen production in industrial scale demands highly stable oxygen carrier pellets. The vast experience of the research group on the steam iron process enabled the researchers to identify the most crucial differences and challenges in the preparation of suitable oxygen carriers.
The goal of this work was the realistic long-term characterization of pelletized oxygen carriers in a fixed bed reactors, which revealed a high temperature gradient, decreased oxygen exchange capacity and a rapid increase in system pressure caused by to powder formation for some samples. The experimental results of this study indicate that the long-term redox cycling seems to outweigh the impact of oxygen carrier preparation methods that may be overvalued in the long run.
Fuel Processing Technology, 2020, 208.
Hydrogen researchers at Graz University of Technology, together with the Graz-based Start-Up Rouge H2 Engineering, have developed a cost-effective process for the decentralized production of high-purity hydrogen. The research success resulted in a compact and space-saving On-Site-On-Demand-System (OSOD) for filling stations and energy plants, which is developed and distributed by Rouge H2 Engineering.
The inner workings of the OSOD H2 generator. The blue cuboid is the core development: a gas furnace with four tubular reactors in which the chemical looping process for hydrogen production takes place (Photo RGH2 in magazine KLIPP, June/July 2020).
TU Graz Planet Research
Nestor Sanchez, Ruth Ruiz, Viktor Hacker and Martha Cobo
The bioethanol produced by biomass fermentation contains large quantities of water and can be used directly in the ethanol steam reformer without any purification steps. However, such bioethanol samples contain a broad spectrum of impurities that make the reformation process more difficult. This overview defines options to reduce impurities with negative influence on the reforming process and to increase the positive ones during pre-treatment and fermentation of the biomass.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 45(21).
Viktor Hacker and Chistof Sumereder
Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering is an excellent introduction into the areas of electricity, electronic devices and electrochemistry. The book covers aspects of electrical science including Ohm and Kirkoff's laws, P-N junctions, semiconductors, circuit diagrams, magnetic fields, electrochemistry, and devices such as DC motors. This textbook is particularly useful for students of chemical, materials, and mechanical engineering.
De Gruyter Textbook , 224 pages
Patrick Krenn, Patrick Zimmermann, Michael Fischlschweiger and Tim Zeiner
The solvent uptake in equilibrium of a highly cross-linked epoxy o-cresol novolac resin in water, isopropanol, and heptane was experimentally measured and modeled with the perturbed-chain statistical association fluid theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state. As suggested in the literature, PC-SAFT was combined with a network term, which takes additional elastic forces into account. The model parameters of the epoxy resin were generated by fitting them to the measured solvent uptake in pure substances and to the density of the epoxy resin, which provided a very good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, the solvent uptake in the mixtures isopropanol/water and isopropanol/heptane was predicted in very good agreement to the experimental data. For the first time, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the solvent uptake in an epoxy resin.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 59(11), 5133-5141.
Astrid Loder, Matthäus Siebenhofer and Susanne Lux
A bifunctional Ni/MgO catalyst was prepared to catalyze CO2 methanation and make use of CO2 as an abundant hydrogen storage facility. The effect of Ni loading and MgO quality on the rate of methanation was tested in a temperature range of 533–648 K. The Ni loading was varied between 0 to 27 wt.% on MgO. To investigate the impact of matrix elements, a MgO/CaO support was tested with 21 wt.%. nickel loading. Further, the role of MgO in the bifunctional catalyst was proven. The reaction kinetics was modeled with a Langmuir–Hinshelwood approach considering the bifunctional character of the catalyst. Nickel provides the adsorbent capacity for hydrogen and is highly selective for methane. MgO activates CO2 through chemisorption. Increasing Ni loading of the catalyst increased the rate of CO2 conversion. According to the results, the mechanism of CO2 methanation did not change with Ni loading. The Ni/MgO catalyst acted as a robust, active and highly selective catalyst for CO2 methanation. With CO2 conversion of 87%, the selectivity to methane was ≥99%. Besides excellent catalytic activity the catalysts suffice the necessity of simple catalyst preparation, usage and recyclability for industrial applicability of CO2 methanation.
Loder et al. (2020) – Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2020, Volume 85.
Sebastian Bock, Robert Zacharias and Viktor Hacker
The transition of our current carbon-based economy towards a sustainable energy system poses major challenges for all stakeholders. Harmful carbon dioxide emissions have to be substantially decreased and even negative emissions are mandatory to avoid a global mean temperature rise above 2 °C unless stringent regulatory measures are taken within the next decade. Chemical looping is an effective method to sequestrate pure carbon dioxide from fossil and renewable energy resources within the framework of carbon capture and storage (CCS) or utilization (CCU) technologies.
The presented study demonstrates the generation of high-purity hydrogen exceeding 99.997% as a zero-emission energy carrier with the inherent co-generation of pure carbon dioxide (99%) and nitrogen (98.5%) in the largest fixed-bed chemical looping research system worldwide with a feedstock utilization of up to 60%. The use of renewable primary energy sources as biogas qualifies the process as a negative emission technology (NET) if carbon dioxide is appropriately utilized.
Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2020,4, 1417-1426.
Bernd Cermenek, Boštjan Genorio, Thomas Winter, Sigrid Wolf, Justin G. Connell, Michaela Roschger, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Norbert Kienzl, Brigitte Bitschnau and Viktor Hacker
Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) still lack active and efficient electrocatalysts for the alkaline ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In this work, a new instant reduction synthesis method was developed to prepare carbon supported ternary PdNiBi nanocatalysts with improved EOR activity. Synthesized catalysts were characterized with a variety of structural and compositional analysis techniques in order to correlate their morphology and surface chemistry with electrochemical performance. The modified instant reduction synthesis results in well-dispersed, spherical Pd85Ni10Bi5 nanoparticles on Vulcan XC72R support (Pd85Ni10Bi5/C(II-III)), with sizes ranging from 3.7 ± 0.8 to 4.7 ± 0.7 nm.
J. Electrocatalysis 11, 203–214.
Marlene Kienberger, Paul Demmelmayer, Michael Weißl, Armin Zankl and Stefan Spirk
The paper presents an experimental study on the preparation and characterization of cellulose films and their use for reactive lignosulfonate extraction. The extraction of lignosulfonates leads to emulsion and crud formation when standard equipment is applied. By using cellulose films as a support layer between the aqueous feed phase and the organic extractant phase, emulsion formation is prevented. The results showed that selective separation and a fractionation of the lignosulfonates can be realized with this novel approach simultaneously.
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, Volume 38, 2020 - Issue 1.
Asep Muhamad Samsudin and Viktor Hacker
Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) contribute significantly to enhance the performance and efficiency of alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). A sequence of composite anion exchange membranes (AEMs) consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), and nano-zirconia (NZ) has been prepared by a solution casting technique. The effect of zirconia mass ratio on attribute and performance of composite AEMs was investigated.
The chemical structures, morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties of AEMs were characterized by FTIR, SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, and universal testing machine, respectively. The performance of composite AEMs was verified using water uptake, swelling degree, ion-exchange capacity, and OH− conductivity measurement. The nano-zirconia was homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/PDDA AEMs matrix. The mechanical properties of the composite AEMs were considerably enhanced with the addition of NZ. Through the introduction of 1.5 wt.% NZ, PVA/PDDA/NZ composite AEMs acquired the highest hydroxide conductivity of 31.57 mS·cm−1 at ambient condition. This study demonstrates that the PVA/PDDA/NZ AEMs are a potential candidate for APEFCs application.
J. Polymers 2019, 11(9), 1399
Den Landespreis „Energy Globe Styria Award" konnte sich in diesem Jahr das Projekt Reduzierende Kalzinierung unter der Leitung von Susanne Lux in Kooperation mit der voestalpine Stahl GmbH und der VA Erzberg GmbH sichern. Dabei gewannen sie den „Energy Globe Styria Award" in der Kategorie „Forschung“ und holten sich auch das „goldene Ticket" für den nationalen „Energy Globe Austria Award" in Linz.
Ziel des Projekts ist es, die Veredelung von Eisenerz zu Eisenoxid nicht wie derzeit üblich durch Sintern unter oxidierenden Bedingungen, sondern unter reduzierenden Bedingungen in Wasserstoffatmosphäre stattfinden zu lassen. Durch dieses Konzept können deutliche Emissions- und Energieeinsparungen erreicht werden.
Im CEET Konkret 2019 präsentieren wir euch unsere aktuellen Forschungsergebnisse und bieten einen Überblick über unsere Themengebiete. Zusätzlich gibt es einen Einblick in unsere internationalen Aktivitäten, sowie das Institutsleben abseits von Forschung und Lehre.
Wir wünschen euch viel Spaß beim Lesen!
CEET Konkret 2019
Biorefineries' Processes and Sustainability
Das CEET-Konkret bietet einen Überblick über aktuelle Forschungsthemen und Instituts-Ereignisse aus dem vergangenen Jahr.
Fig.: Presentation of the national reward "Mobilität 2017" (bmvit, 27.01.2017) by the Federal Minister for the research project "H2 Mobility".
Over 70 participants from 13 countries (Austria, China, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Japan, Finland, France, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, and USA) attended the exciting workshop “Highlights of International Fuel Cell Research 2017” on May 15, 2017.
Prof. Harald Kainz, Rector of Graz University of Technology, opened the workshop and welcomed the renowned scientists. Theodor Zillner, representative of the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit), pointed out the importance of the international network IEA and the international cooperation in science and technology.
D.J. Liu, Argonne National Laboratory USA and Operating Agent of Annex 31 and Fabio Matera, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Italy and Operating Agent of Annex 35, introduced the IEA Technology Collaboration Programme and the Annexes. Prof. Viktor Hacker, Institute of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technologies of TU Graz and local organiser of the workshop, gave a short overview of research groups in the field of fuel cells in Austria.
In the main session, the experts presented and discussed in 15 lectures the results and scientific breakthroughs of international fuel cell development. In the evening, the poster session gave the opportunity for discussion with the experts and national representatives of the annexes.
Im Rahmen des Horizon 2020 Projektes BioEnergyTrain (grant agreement N 656760) wurden zwei Masterstudiengänge in dem Umfeld der biobasierten Industrie / biobasierten Energieerzeugung entwickelt, BioRefinery Engineering und BioResource Value Chain Optimization. Der Masterstudiengang BioRefinery Engineering wird ab dem Wintersemester 2017/2018 an der Technischen Universität Graz angeboten. Weiterführende Informationen sind hier https://www.tugraz.at/studium/studienangebot/masterstudien/biorefinery-engineering/) zu finden.
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. tech. Bsc. Christoph Grimmer hat gemeinsam mit Kollegen am Institut für Chemische Verfahrenstechnik und Umwelttechnologien ein Plug&Play Speichersystem für Haushalte entwickelt. Weiteres unter...
Msc. Thomas Goetsch hat mit seinem Vortrag " Vorhersage und experimentelle Überprüfung des Oiling out-Effektes bei der Trennung von Isomeren" den Vortragspreises des Dechema Fachausschusses Kristallisation (6.-7. März 2017 in Köln) bekommen. Die Co-autoren des Vortrages sind Patrick Zimmermann (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology), Rebecca van den Bongardt (TU Dortmund), Amelie Köhler (TU Dortmund), Sabine Enders (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) und Tim Zeiner.
Bettina Koch Mag.phil.
Jutta Freißmuth Oberkontrollorin
Tel. +43 (316) 873 - 7462 Fax +43 (316) 873 - 107462 jutta.freissmuthnoSpam@tugraz.at Visitenkarte